This is a detailed history from 1934 to the present of the San Francisco Bay Area’s Pacific Steel Casting Company (PSC), among the largest foundries of its kind in the US, and its downwind neighbors. The following chronology is culled primarily from oral histories and periodicals; it documents the community’s dissatisfaction with the inadequate air pollution cleanup activities by PSC, the city of Berkeley government, and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD).



In West Berkeley, PSC was co-founded by Ivan Johnson, who shortly thereafter served as chairman of the BAAQMD. PSC has made technology for pumps and valves, oil fields, construction equipment, and trucks, as well as military, industrial, and mining applications.


Some foundries started to use synthetic resins, which PSC was prepared to use in its future expansions.


PSC was granted permission to build Plant #2. The Plant was permitted to use synthetic resins without a requirement for devices to control odorous emissions.


Neighbors began to reflect on the smell from PSC’s new foundry processes.


Robert Humphreys, City of Berkeley zoning officer, determined an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) would not be required for the construction of PSC’s Plant #3. This was because PSC had assured him that the new operation would produce “no increase in odors.”


Berkeley neighbors began to organize around a burning pot handle/burning brake smell that emanated from PSC in West Berkeley. Neighbors learned to call the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) to make complaints about the odor nuisance from PSC. PSC received notices of violation from BAAQMD for creating an odor nuisance due to many confirmed complaints from residents of Berkeley.

The grassroots neighborhood organization Neighbors for Clean Air (NCA) was formed. NCA approached BAAQMD, the Berkeley City Council, the State Department of Health, and the City Board of Adjustments to deal with the issues of odor nuisance and possible health risks from emissions at PSC. Hearings were held at different agencies but, due to postponements and cancellations of nine hearing dates, no immediate action took place.


Due to continued community complaints, BAAQMD scheduled a test to determine the source of PSC’s emissions. PSC was issued numerous notices of violation from BAAQMD for odor nuisance.

The Berkeley City Council and the Board of Adjustments held public hearings regarding PSC odors, but deferred to BAAQMD.

After receiving 107 confirmed complaints, the BAAQMD air pollution control officer filed for a public hearing before the BAAQMD hearing board (the quasi-judicial branch of the air district). District inspectors and consultants gave expert testimony, and residents testified about PSC’s odor nuisance.

Throughout the hearing, PSC denied it was responsible for the odor. The BAAQMD hearing board issued a conditional order of abatement against Pacific Steel Casting Company, listing steps PSC must take to end the pollution. PSC was to return to the board a month later with very specific plans and a schedule for ending the release of its emissions.


In January, PSC hired Richard Duffee, an expert on foundries, paying $500 per day for him to address the odor problem. He advised the erection of an 85-foot stack on Plant two, and ducts in parts of Plant two and three to solve the odor nuisance. The noxious odor then spread as far as Grizzly Peak in the Berkeley Hills.

In response to PSC’s prolonged foot-dragging, the hearing board prepared an unconditional order of abatement, the most serious type of order. PSC’s lawyer from Joseph Alioto’s law firm immediately filed a petition in Superior Court to have the order of abatement overturned. This attempt failed and PSC was compelled to install an extensive ventilation system as well as scrubbers. PSC’s hired expert then advised adding a condenser.


Thus far, PSC had been fined $40,000 and been forced to pay none of it. The odor returned to Berkeley, Albany, Kensington and El Cerrito neighborhoods. More confirmed complaints were tallied against PSC. More hearings were held. PSC was ordered to install a carbon filtration system within eight months. After still more hearings, in December, the BAAQMD hearing board issued an unconditional order of abatement, which stated that PSC must cease and desist emitting odors from its Plants or face fines and possible closure.


The unconditional order of abatement went into effect in January. BAAQMD took PSC to Alameda County Superior Court to force the industry to adhere to its unconditional order of abatement and stop polluting the air. PSC installed a carbon adsorption system on Plant #2.


There were 630 complaints made against PSC in this year alone.


There were 142 complaints against PSC. PSC installed a carbon adsorption system on Plant #1.


PSC received two loans and bought and installed a Calcifire Thermal Sand Reclamation System to reuse the 5,500 tons of sand PSC uses in its casting process. Some observers called it an incinerator. No environmental impact report (EIR) process was conducted before the installation and no notice for public review was given, probably violating the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). PSC (and the City of Berkeley) received an award from the California Association for Local Economic Development – announced in time for Earth Day – for installing the sand reclamation system.


By the nineties, the bureaucratic complaint policies of BAAQMD had thoroughly frustrated longtime residents who had routinely called in complaints. Many stopped complaining by 1999. Many had moved out of the area. Residents new to the community did not know the source of the distinctive odor or whom to call about the smell. BAAQMD still had not effectively publicized the phone number for complaints. Some BAAQMD inspectors continued to discourage residents who tried to complain about or organize against PSC emissions.

Between 1994 and 1999, the public had made 190 complaints, 27 of which were confirmed complaints. No notices of violation were issued.

PSC requested that BAAQMD lift the unconditional order of abatement against it that had been in effect for fourteen years.


In March, a BAAQMD hearing was held to decide whether to lift the unconditional abatement order against Pacific Steel Casting Company. Public notice was only given via The Oakland Tribune.

Residents who attended the hearing voiced concerns about the odor nuisance as well as public health and the environmental risks of the sand reclamation unit, but they were told the hearing board could only deal with the public nuisance issue (odor complaints). The hearing board took community members’ concerns into account. The board slammed the district’s complaint policies as well as the district’s method for determining the existence of a violation. Because such policy concerns are outside its jurisdiction, the hearing board was powerless to change BAAQMD policy. It was not powerless with regard to the abatement order.

Only one member of the hearing board wrote a dissenting opinion against lifting the unconditional order of abatement. The order, which required that PSC cease and desist emission of its odor nuisance or face fines and possible closure, was lifted.


There were 18 complaints made to BAAQMD against PSC.


There were 49 complaints made.


There were 112 complaints made. 


In April, seven odor complaints confirmed by a district inspector resulted in a notice of violation against PSC. BAAQMD transferred the inspector to a different beat. Pacific Steel Casting Company had topped BAAQMD’s complaint list in Berkeley every year since 2000.

After the past 25 years of neighbor complaints, the emissions from the third unit at PSC were still unfiltered and about half of the emissions from the second unit were unfiltered. PSC’s environmental engineer said publicly that PSC would not change anything until BAAQMD found the source of the odor. The firm Aroner, Jewel & Ellis Partners (AJE) took over all public relations for PSC shortly thereafter, recommended by Ignacio de la Fuente, Oakland city council president and international vice president of the workers’s union at PSC.

Also in April, Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates and City Councilmember Linda Maio’s aide held a town hall meeting. Over 70 people attended. The main topic was the continued community concern about PSC’s pollution.

From the beginning of April to the end of June, 3 Notices of Violation were issued to PSC by BAAQMD.

NCA came under the umbrella of a new group, The West Berkeley Alliance for Clean Air and Safe Jobs. The Alliance was founded as a network of neighbors, businesses, and environmental, social justice, and children’s groups in Berkeley, Albany, El Cerrito, and Kensington allied to preserve safe jobs while preventing noxious pollution.

BAAQMD did not have the funds to conduct a Health Risk Assessment (HRA); it delegated this job to Pacific Steel. When the Alliance critiqued the conflict of interest inherent in an industry arranging and paying for its own evaluation, the City of Berkeley arranged public comment periods to take residents’ input about the planned HRA to BAAQMD and PSC.

The initial HRA plan used emissions measurements from 15 years before, emissions estimates from a reference book, and projections of breathing rates for adult men rather than the trebled rate characteristic of children. The plan recommended few new source tests of PSC’s actual emissions. BAAQMD concluded this was adequate.

The Alliance held a meeting in July to organize neighbors and train them in testing the air, independent from government and industry.

In August, the City of Berkeley held a community meeting, agreeing to advocate on behalf of, and take input from, the community regarding the HRA and an imminent odor study of PSC, with the eventual goal of mitigating the pollution problem for good.

In September and October, PSC submitted a Draft HRA Protocols and Modeling document, a Draft Source Test Plan and an Odor Control Plan to BAAQMD. PSC suggested it would install pollution controls in Plant #3.

In December the BAAQMD and PSC (excluding public participation) signed a settlement agreement due to 9 notices of violation in 2005. The agreement refers to Plant #3 and includes installation of a carbon adsorption system, as well as PSC’s Odor Control Plan (new housekeeping procedures, use of an odor-neutralizer, enclosure of the cooling and pouring areas, etc.) The Alliance demanded that the flawed settlement agreement be renegotiated with public input.


On April 10th, representatives of the Alliance, Berkeley City Councilmember Maio and the BAAQMD met to discuss community air monitoring. The BAAQMD canceled a scheduled follow-up meeting.

In May, Communities for a Better Environment (CBE) declared its intent to file a suit against PSC, alleging violations of Clean Air Act recordkeeping requirements and permitted emissions limits.

Also in May, the City of Berkeley Zoning Adjustments Board (ZAB) approved PSC’s permit to build the carbon adsorption system on Plant #3, without requiring environmental impact review and comprehensive toxics prevention (despite objections from community members such as the Alliance). A community member appealed the ZAB decision to the Berkeley City Council.

At the end of May the City Council unanimously upheld the ZAB decision. City of Berkeley Mayor Bates was installed as a Director on the BAAQMD Board.

At Mayor Bates’ request, Alliance members met with him to discuss Alliance requirements regarding PSC, the BAAQMD, and the City of Berkeley, including: placement of Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) devices to calculate PSC’s emissions and offer easy public access to the emissions data, adoption of a Toxic Use Reduction (TUR) approach to cleanup, BAAQMD inspector response to complaints after hours, funds for independent community air testing, etc.

In August, after Alliance members had repeatedly pressured the BAAQMD Board of Directors with public comments about PSC’s pollution, the BAAQMD filed suit against PSC for noncompliance with the settlement agreement. In September, PSC delivered a late, incomplete Emissions Inventory Report to the BAAQMD; PSC source test results for June and July were not included.

PSC’s Carbon Adsorption filter on Plant #3 was installed by October 15th.

In November, the Alliance released the results of independent community tests conducted to detect toxic dust/soot/ash fallout in the neighborhoods around PSC. Many potentially harmful substances were detected, including unhealthy levels of lead.

Also this month, the organization Neighborhood Solutions took PSC to small claims court on behalf of 25 community members.

On November 11th, more than 250 community members attended a march and rally to protest PSC’s pollution.


PSC mailed a “Neighborhood News” publication to 7500 Berkeley residents to begin the year.

In February, Berkeley Mayor Bates and Berkeley City Council member Maio held a community meeting to discuss PSC. BAAQMD and PSC representatives were present, and an Alliance member spoke out to a standing ovation.

Also in February, CBE and PSC reached a settlement. The agreement required PSC to dedicate $350,000 to reduce annual emissions by 2 tons within 3 years. The decision about how to spend the money was to be made by CBE, PSC and the GMP-164B union of PSC workers. The agreement allowed CBE to tour PSC’s facility and review records there multiple times per year. PSC was required to inspect scrap shipments and only use scrap metal without mercury, plastic, lead, and other contaminants. PSC had been cited when the melting of scrap guns with ammunition and oil left in them blew a hole in one bag house and released smoke.

Late in February, PSC’s Emissions Inventory Report was released by the BAAQMD to the community. The Alliance requested that material excluded from the report because PSC claimed it was trade secret be included. The uncensored version was made public by the BAAQMD after PSC did not take legal action to prevent this.

In March, the Berkeley City Council heard its Community Environmental Advisory Commission (CEAC) recommendations for City actions regarding PSC’s pollution: test for lead and other heavy metals in the community, convene a public hearing about PSC’s pollution, enforce existing City codes and ordinances, and encourage PSC to adopt TUR measures. The City decided to delay the possibility of taking action on any CEAC recommendations until the release of the HRA; this meant that no funds to enact the CEAC recommendations could be approved in the City budget.

In April, Alliance ally Global Community Monitor (GCM) got a $25,000 grant from the BAAQMD to conduct community air testing. The BAAQMD also said it would set up a mobile air monitoring station in West Berkeley and conduct tests for PSC’s emissions, but provided no start-up date.

In May, PSC and the BAAQMD accepted a settlement agreement that stated PSC will pay a $150,000 fine and install a capture hood at Plant #3’s electric arc furnace.

On July 23rd, PSC released its entire draft HRA to the BAAQMD. The HRA was to be released to the public at the end of July, but the BAAQMD returned the HRA to PSC for revisions. The release date of the HRA was postponed to September.

In August, GCM presented the results of the first 25 community air tests. Very high manganese and nickel levels were found, as well as a number of other chemicals PSC reported emitting. GCM announced it planned to conduct 100 more tests by December.

In November, nine of the nineteen plaintiffs who filed a small claims case against PSC were awarded $2,100 – $5,100 each. The judge found PSC created a private nuisance and a real, appreciable invasion of the plaintiffs’ interests. PSC said it would appeal the decision.


In January, Mayor Bates and Councilmember Maio held a public meeting to review PSC’s HRA, allowing for public comments. BAAQMD staff was present. Maio vowed she would force PSC to cut odors from its plants.

In February, PSC laid off 60 workers, claiming the lay-offs were “due to the uncertainty of the company’s future” because Councilmember Maio had said she planned to introduce a City Council motion stating that PSC was a public nuisance. PSC alleged that this could have resulted in the revocation of its use permits. PSC said several clients cancelled orders after PSC alleged the public nuisance proposal was made public.

Maio and Bates took the public nuisance motion off of the Council agenda after receiving a letter from PSC saying it would negotiate. Bates and Maio began back room talks with PSC to discuss an Odor Control Plan; there was no public involvement.

PSC issued Vol. 3 of its Neighborhood News PR pamphlet in a mass mailing to West Berkeley residents, declaring it would reduce emissions, and implying its efforts lowered complaint numbers.

In April, PSC appealed the small claims court decision. Attorney Tim Rumberger filed a class action lawsuit against PSC on behalf of West Berkeley residents. A community member made a public records request to the BAAQMD for a copy of PSC’s Odor Control Plan. The BAAQMD notified PSC of the request and PSC sued the BAAQMD to prevent the release of the Odor Control Plan’s trade secrets. Tetra Tech, Inc. released its review of PSC’s HRA, paid for by the City of Berkeley. The review found numerous shortcomings, omissions and questionable methodologies.

In July, the City of Berkeley and PSC made an agreement to improve Plant 1 and Plant 2 to reduce emissions.

By December, the 2007 small claims court decision to award West Berkeley residents damages from PSC was overturned. USA Today published a study of 127,800 nationwide schools’ pollution levels using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data. Three schools in West Berkeley were found to be in the top worst percentile of polluted schools. Berkeley High School was ranked in the eighth worst percentile. City officials, Berkeley Unified School District, private schools and community members were alarmed.

The BAAQMD Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO), Jack Broadbent, wrote a letter debunking the EPA TRI data used and the results. EPA staff then apparently defended the way the TRI data were used in the USA Today study.


On February the 22nd, about 250 community members marched to PSC demanding cleaner air.

In April, the Healthy Air Coalition sued the BAAQMD to obtain the release of PSC’s Odor Control Plan. The BAAQMD released the West Berkeley Air Monitoring results for the previous year. No toxic emissions were above legal levels. The Alliance and community members questioned the BAAQMD’s comparison of large port cities to PSC’s area and the methodology of the air monitoring.

In early July, 75 more PSC workers were laid off due to the economic recession. Oakland city council member and international vice president of PSC’s union, Ignacio de la Fuente, claimed environmentalists and local residents had gone too far and caused financial damage to PSC, resulting in the lay offs.

By late July, half of PSC’s workforce was laid off. PSC’s PR firm stated the economy was the cause. Environmental justice groups, including the Alliance, met with BAAQMD staff to propose changes to the flawed BAAQMD Complaint Guidelines.

In September, the City of Berkeley Zoning Adjustments Board (ZAB) questioned City staff’s performance review report on PSC’s Plant 3 use permit, and asked City staff to answer ZAB’s questions in a follow-up report. Community members including the Alliance attended a meeting to urge the ZAB to add stringent conditions to PSC’s permit.

In November, the Bay Area Environmental Health Collaborative (BAEHC) and allies like the Alliance attended BAAQMD Board of Directors meetings to advocate for the Board to adopt BAEHC’s protocols. The protocols proposed banning new industry permits in highly impacted areas in the Bay Area and tightening regulations for existing industry in highly impacted areas.

The Alliance, EJ groups and other community members attended a second meeting with BAAQMD staff to discuss the proposed Complaint Guideline changes. BAAQMD staff agreed to respond to the proposed changes by early January 2010.


In January, the BAAQMD staff sent a written response to the fourteen proposed changes to the BAAQMD Complaint Guidelines. The BAAQMD did not agree to major changes to the BAAQMD Complaint Guidelines that BAEHC, and allies like the Alliance, proposed. The BAAQMD Board of Directors adopted more health protective protocols for highly impacted areas in the Bay Area.

The ZAB held a public meeting regarding PSC. Since many community members testified regarding PSC, health concerns, nuisance concerns and the demand for more stringent conditions on PSC’s use permits, the ZAB, under guidance from City staff, voted to postpone its decision to accept PSC’s annual performance report.

In February, city staff recommended that the ZAB continue the consideration of PSC’s performance report off calendar.

In April, city staff guided the ZAB, before it accepted the performance report, to gather information from the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) via a workshop on health and air quality.

As Berkeley City Councilmember Linda Maio campaigned for reelection in September, three competitors, Anthony Di Donato, Jasper Kingeter and Merrilie Mitchell, challenged her record regarding odor and community health concerns arising from Pacific Steel Casting Company’s emissions.

Later in the month, the Berkeley City Council voted to write the BAAQMD, asking the agency to rescind its acceptance of PSC’s Odor Management Plan. Linda Maio and Max Anderson said they would draft the letter.


In March, PSC’s GMP Union Local 164B workers went on strike due to the unsatisfactory contract PSC offered. Workers asked for a 40 cent per hour pay increase and were at odds with PSC’s proposed health benefits changes. PSC’s union eventually accepted a new contract.

In June, PSC revealed that workers had been undergoing employment eligibility I-9 audits. PSC spokeswoman Elizabeth Jewel claimed that Homeland Security began conducting the audit in late February.

Also, BAAQMD released a draft metal melting rule for public comment; the BAAQMD had had the draft rule ready since September 2010. This rule could affect about 130 metal melting and scrap metal recycling industries in the Bay Area, including PSC.

In other June news, the Berkeley City Council unanimously voted to adopt a resolution to dissuade the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security from pursuing I-9 employment eligibility audits of PSC. The Alliance wrote a letter of support for the resolution and attended the council meeting, giving public comments in support of the resolution by Councilmember Arreguin.

In July, the BAAQMD held a contentious public workshop in Oakland to hear public comments regarding the draft metal melting rule. The auditorium was overcrowded with industry workers and their managers. While trying to make public comments, community members were heckled and subjected to derogatory slurs by industry workers. BAAQMD failed to set and enforce ground rules for appropriate attendee behavior. After reviewing industry and community comments, BAAQMD decided to write a second draft of the metal melting rule.

In December, the media revealed that, although PSC had only begun firing employees in October, by mid December PSC had already fired 200. A spokeswoman told KTVU television that ICE usually acts on tips when deciding which businesses to audit.

PSC was slapped with a $31 million lawsuit by a former employee on behalf of 1,000 current and former employees because the company allegedly had denied them timely breaks on the job.


In January, 200 PSC employees who were unable to prove they were legal workers in the U.S. said final goodbyes; some had worked at PSC upwards of 20 years.

Global Community Monitor, one of the Alliance’s environmental justice allies, announced it would test the blood for manganese of 35 children in Berkeley, 1-5 years of age, who lived within one mile of PSC.

In February, fired undocumented workers from PSC held a March for Dignity through Berkeley to an area near PSC. Alliance members attended the march in support of the fired workers.

In mid-June, the BAAQMD released a second draft metal melting rule for public comment. A workshop to solicit public comments was scheduled in Oakland at the same auditorium that was used in 2011.

In July, the BAAQMD held the public workshop for a second draft of the metal melting rule (Reg 12-13, Reg 12-14). Community groups boycotted the public workshop because the BAAQMD did not provide adequate safeguards against a recurrence of industry’s July 2011 harassment tactics. The Alliance e-mailed its comments regarding the second draft rule to the BAAQMD in June.

In August, the Alliance paid a consultant, Julia May, to prepare public comments on the BAAQMD staff’s draft metal melting rule. These comments were submitted to BAAQMD staff.


In March, the BAAQMD Stationary Source Committee had the second draft metal melting rule on the agenda.

In April, Coby Graham of the Golden Gate University Environmental Law and Justice Clinic prepared public comments on the draft metal melting rule which were submitted to the BAAQMD staff.

In May, the West Berkeley Alliance for Clean Air and Safe Jobs attended the BAAQMD Board of Directors meeting where the Board approved the staff’s draft metal melting rule without adding the Alliance’s suggested changes to strengthen it and make the rule enforceable.

In June, the environmental organization San Francisco Baykeeper won a Clean Water Act lawsuit against PSC. PSC agreed to stop illegal rainy-season runoff pollution of the San Francisco Bay. PSC was required to install pollution control devices and fund environmental restoration projects to counter previous years of aluminum, copper, iron and zinc emissions.


In March, PSC files for bankruptcy, but the company continues business as usual.

In April, the Alliance joins allies in a march against cancer and pollution in Bayview Hunter’s Point, San Francisco.


In January, the Berkeley City Council passed an action where Councilmembers Linda Maio and Lori Droste were to work with residents, businesses, and City Staff to review complaints and make good faith efforts to mitigate impacts in the areas where the City has authority such as noise and odors and to bring their findings back to City Council.

Councilmember Droste met with several Alliance members at City Hall on a weekday morning when many other concerned community members could not attend. The Alliance members shared specific PSC and BAAQMD concerns and left relevant BAAQMD and PSC related documents with Droste to bring her up to speed on the struggle for improved air quality in West Berkeley.

In several emails, the Alliance requested Maio and Droste hold a community meeting in West Berkeley in the evening to allow for full public participation. The Alliance asked for a community meeting to be held before a Maio/Droste report was submitted to the City Council. This request was never granted.

On May 26 at the City Council meeting the Alliance gave public comment re: City Council having the ZAB add conditions to PSC’s use permit requiring Continuous Emissions Monitors (CEMs) at all stacks, fence line monitors at each plant and real time emissions results available to the public.

July 1 Maio and Droste, along with City staff, met with BAAQMD staff, including the Director of Compliance and Enforcement and Air Quality Manager. No details regarding the BAAQMD meeting were made public.

July 14 City Council was provided a second status report on a meeting with BAAQMD as well as continuing discussion with industry and concerned residents. Although Maio stated she would continue to meet with concerned community members, the Alliance has not been contacted for a follow-up meeting with Maio or Droste.


In July, two Alliance members attended a community meeting in West Berkeley with Council member Maio. A majority of the community members asked that the meeting agenda items be reordered, but Maio refused. Maio left PSC and West Berkeley air quality to the very end of the meeting.

When asked by an Alliance member, Maio refused to commit to a weekly walk in West Berkley which would have allowed Maio to make an odor complaint to the BAAQMD Complaint Hotline whenever she smelled PSC’s distinctive odor.

August 8 the Alliance was notified by a community member of the BAAQMD holding a review of PSC’s Synthetic Minor Operating Permit (SMOP) which allowed public comment until August 15.

The BAAQMD wrote to the US EPA that public notice would be published in the Oakland Tribune on July 7. The Oakland Tribune had stopped publishing in 2015. It has since merged into The East Bay Times.

The BAAQMD did not give adequate public notice to the Alliance and impacted West Berkeley community members to allow for full public participation in the PSC permitting process.

In a US EPA letter to a community member, a bad link to the BAAQMD website’s Proposed PSC SMOP Evaluation Report did not allow the Alliance access to the report.
After the Alliance public comment addressing these problems was submitted on August 10, the BAAQMD extended the public comment period to August 30.

September 1 an addendum to Alliance public comments was submitted to request a 30 day comment period extension to begin when the Alliance had access to all PSC permit applications from 2000-2016 and to PSC emissions calculations in the BAAQMD evaluation report. BAAQMD District staff were invited to host a community meeting in West Berkeley on a weekday evening to explain all of the documents in lay language and to answer questions.

December 14 a public meeting hosted by the BAAQMD regarding PSC’s proposed Synthetic Minor Operating Permit (SMOP) was held at La Quinta Hotel in West Berkeley. The formal public comment period from 5:30 – 6:30 pm. allowed members of the public to comment on PSC’s proposed SMOP. From 6:30 – 7:30 pm an informal question and answer session followed. This is the first time the community has been allowed to participate in PSC’s permitting process.

BAAQMD Senior Air Quality Engineer Nicolas Maiden, Director of Compliance and Enforcement Wayne Kino, Information Technology Officer Jaimie Williams were among a number of BAAQMD staff present. Members of the Alliance presented specific PSC SMOP related comments/questions such as:
– Why has BAAQMD violated its own regulations and taken more than a decade to act on PSC’s 2005 application?
– Are PSC’s 2008 Odor Management Plan provisions all enforceable permit conditions?
– Since PSC’s permit application is from 2005, isn’t much of the information outdated?
– Why is some source testing in the permit delayed for 120 days and others delayed to be performed within three years?
– Why not have the SMOP require flame ionization detectors immediately?
– How would BAAQMD inspectors determine if PSC SMOP limits are exceeded?
– What is being done to reduce the risks associated with toxic air contaminants at the facility and health effects on the surrounding community?
– Does the permit include specific conditions for addressing risks such as risks stemming from manganese and nickel?
– Is PSC’s proposed SMOP practically enforceable?
– Require continuous emissions monitoring and fence line monitoring with real-time publicly available data in the SMOP to identify what pollutants and
odors emanate from PSC.

The Golden Gate University Environmental Law and Justice Clinic and several experts in air quality and the permitting process provided critical assistance to the Alliance in understanding the very technical portions of PSC’s proposed SMOP. Final written comments will be submitted to BAAQMD by the ELJC on behalf of the Alliance by the January 19, 2017 deadline.


In February, two whistleblowers who were former BAAQMD employees had tv and print media coverage stating they were told to allow the destruction of pollution records, including settlements and violations, during their assigned jobs of digitizing, itemizing and indexing records. The whistleblowers were fired and have filed a lawsuit. Pacific Steel Casting Company was one of the companies whose records were destroyed.

In October, Pacific Steel Casting Company President Krishnan Venkatesan sent a letter to approximately 70 of its employees. “I write regretfully to inform you that Pacific Steel Casting plans to shut down its business located at 1333 Second Street.” “The plan is expected to occur on December 17, 2017. We expect these plans, when finalized, to be permanent and the Company’s entire operation in this location will be closed.”

In November, Pacific Steel Casting Company’s workers’ union sued the company for unpaid benefits.  When Speyside Equity Firm purchased the company in July 2014, it agreed to abide by the collective bargaining agreements worked out with the union, including paying for workers’ health benefits and paying into their pension fund. The federal government has established rules and regulations for these plans through The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Representatives of the union’s pension fund sued Speyside under the federal ERISA law, stating that the firm had not been keeping up with pension and health payments.

In December, PSC did an about-face and announced it will continue operations until March 2018 due to an increase in orders.  According to Donald Carter, a representative of Local 164B, Glass, Molders, Pottery, Plastics & Allied Workers International Union, which represents the workers the company even decided to hire additional workers.

The board of trustees of PSC’s union’s pension fund had asked the court to allow it to attach a lien to the three plants at 1333 Second St., in the amount of $444,844. An attorney for Speyside Equity Firm told the judge, Elizabeth D. LaPorte, that if the pension fund board seized the company’s assets, it would force the complete shutdown of the plant.


One and a half years after public comment closed BAAQMD issued a Synthetic Minor Operating Permit (SMOP) to PSC in June.

Two West Berkeley Alliance for Clean Air and Safe Jobs (the Alliance) members reviewed the SMOP  and offered these comments:
In the PSC SMOP, many permitted sources of CO and PM10 at plant 2 (and one at plant 3) are marked “[EXEMPT]” and four bag house pressure monitoring instruments that check the effectiveness of bag house abatement are marked “[TBD] no device currently installed.” On page 29 of the evaluation report BAAQMD acknowledges “The pre-control PM emissions from each individual electric arc furnace (S-1001, S-2027, and S-3001) exceed the major source threshold”, followed by the BAAQMD stating that EPA retains regulatory authority. PSC’s emissions minimization plan has basic information which is excluded as confidential trade secrets.

From BAAQMD Evaluation Report of PSC’s SMOP:
12/08/17 – PSC announces that it will remain open through end of March 2018
Feb 2018 – PSC tells City of Berkeley that it will remain open until April 2, 2018
05/01/18 – PSC tells the District that it will remain open through July 2018
06/02/18 – PSC tells the District that it will remain open through middle of August 2018

In early August, a public records request made to BAAQMD by the Alliance asked if BAAQMD had received official notice from PSC about a date its operations would close permanently. The BAAQMD Public Records Department responded BAAQMD had not received official notification from PSC.

An Internet search by the Alliance revealed that two auctions of PSC’s equipment have occurred. https://reichbros.com/sale-event/pacific-steel-casting/ https://www.bidspotter.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/bscunited/catalogue-id-united4-10006/lot-19c04d72-03aa-414d-a75f-a8c8010bb1ab

06/25/2018 SMOP Final Permit

06/25/2018 Eval Clean

06/25/2018 Response to Public Comments

Pacific Steel Casting Company permanently closed in October and the City of Berkeley is seeking input on the future of the plant’s site.


Pacific Steel Casting Company (PSC) files for bankruptcy on January 25th. Top executives get paid, but workers don’t get severance.

According to a Berkeleyside online article, PSC filed “for bankruptcy but not before repaying a $3.8 million loan to Speyside Fund LLC, the entity that purchased the firm in 2014. The company also managed to pay more than $615,000 in salaries to its two top executives before the Chapter 7 filing, but couldn’t pay out the $845,746 in severance it owes about 70 employees.”

“Moreover, the only secured creditor, the first in line to get repaid, is the Speyside Fund. Pacific Steel Casting owes it $823,963 and the debt is secured by property. All the others owed money — former workers, the city of Berkeley (owed $88,712 for unpaid business tax and other fees), two sets of attorneys, the underwriters that provided a surety bond, plumbers, LinkedIn and more — will have to wait.”

“The bankruptcy filing says that a “rigger spilled transformer fluid that contained PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls],” and puts the clean-up cost at $33,848. The accident happened as Pacific Steel was vacating the premises, said [attorney Tracey] Green.”

Berkeleyside journalist Frances Dinkelspiel emailed the Alliance that Tracey Green told her the PCBs were cleaned up but they listed it in the bankruptcy filing to preserve the right to go after the company that made the spill for repayment.

Pacific Steel Casting Company’s finances were revealed at its bankruptcy hearing on March 5, 2019. Go to this link to learn about the complicated ownership, finances and money owed to workers. https://www.berkeleyside.com/2019/03/05/berkeleys-pacific-steel-casting-company-finances-revealed-during-bankruptcy-hearing

Mayor Jesse Arreguin and District 1 Councilmember Rashi Kesarwani held a meeting on March 6, 2019 to hear ideas about what could replace the former Pacific Steel Casting Company’s 8.3 acre site. Some wanted to keep the site as a diverse mix of manufacturing and industrial uses, others suggested housing. The level of pollution on the site is being investigated and will become public in a few months. A new owner would be responsible for clean up.

KPIX TV aired August 1 with a report that although Pacific Steel Casting Company has been shuttered for a year, its toxic footprint is still being felt. A landlord rented space on PSC’s former site to Jake Cherry’s company, Universal Waste Management.

A report commissioned by the landlord, HFR Properties, found high levels of heavy metals inside a structure called a baghouse on the premises, where the foundry used to dump its hazardous waste. According to the report “the materials in these baghouse areas are contained and pose no substantive threat to occupants of the site.”

But testing commissioned by Jake Cherry found arsenic, chromium, lead and other heavy metals, well above safe limits, lay on the ground where employees for Cherry’s company, Universal Waste Management, had been working for a year.

When he turned to the city of Berkeley for help, Cherry said “the answer came back, our department is not responsible for this, please talk to the next department.”

“[I’m] really scared for my employees, for myself, for my employees’ families,” Cherry said.

When Pacific Steel went out of business it signed a closure plan with the city to clean up the toxic materials left behind but that process was never completed. In fact, in Cherry’s yard, it was never begun.

According to Jean Tepperman in an August 14, 2019 article in The East Bay Express, a veteran employee of the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, Michael Bachmann,  filed a lawsuit charging that the district destroyed important public records about air pollution, then fired him because he objected.

Bachmann had worked for the air district for more than a dozen years when he was asked, in 2014, to take charge of a massive overhaul of the agency’s records. The district was planning to move its headquarters and wanted to inventory, streamline, and digitize its files in preparation for the move.

To help with this task, Bachmann hired his longtime friend Steele, who had experience creating and managing records systems. While she organized paper and microfilm documents, he worked with photographic images stored on computers, creating a digital system to organize and digitize them so they would be searchable.

“So few people are aware of the horrific pollution going on in our backyards.” Steele said it’s important for people to know the history of pollution on a particular piece of land — such as the site of the notorious Berkeley polluter, Pacific Steel Casting, which recently closed.

Pacific Steel Casting Company documents are among those allegedly destroyed by BAAQMD staff with the knowledge of and under the direction of, higher ups in the agency.

The lawsuit is moving slowly, but scheduled to go to trial in December. So far the court has taken depositions from eleven air district staff members. Last April, Walker said, it imposed a fine on the district for “abusing the discovery process and not producing documents that they should have produced.”

The greed of Speyside Fund, Speyside Equity and others is highlighted in a November 7 Berkeleyside.com article, “The bankruptcy trustee overseeing the liquidation of Pacific Steel Casting filed an “adversary proceeding” in court Monday essentially accusing Speyside Fund, the group that bought the casting company in September 2014, of looting the company and improperly making insider payments — actions that ultimately led the 84-year-old business to file for bankruptcy in 2019.

The Speyside Fund, Speyside Equity, Alcast Company of Illinois, various business partners and managers, “looted” $14.5 million from the West Berkeley company over a four-year period, and justified the siphoning off by “cooking” the books, according to the action filed by Sarah L. Little, the bankruptcy trustee. The complaint, prepared by the Los Angeles-area law firm Brutzkus Gubner, was filed in front of Roger Efremsky, the U.S. Bankruptcy Court judge who oversaw Pacific Steel Casting’s first bankruptcy in 2014. A hearing is scheduled for January.”

In December, whistleblowers Michael Bachmann and Sarah Steele, former employees of the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), reached a settlement with the BAAQMD for $4 million and a change of Michael Bachmann’s status from terminated to retired to end their whistleblower lawsuit. The lawsuit claimed the BAAQMD illegally destroyed documents critical to the BAAQMD’s ability to monitor, regulate, and enforce air quality for the Bay Area and then terminated Bachmann and Steele when they brought their concerns to executive management. Pacific Steel Casting Company was one of a number of companies to have public record pollution documents destroyed.


Two suspects were arrested for illegal entry to Pacific Steel Casting Company and copper wire theft.


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Dinkelspiel, Frances. (edited 9/9/18) “End of an era: Berkeley’s Pacific Steel Casting shuts down after 84 years.” https://www.berkeleyside.com/2018/09/06/end-of-an-era-berkeleys-pacific-steel-casting-shuts-down-after-84-years/, September 9, 2018.

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Heisler, Steve. “Residents to Sniff Our Pollution.” The East Bay Daily News, July 29, 2006.

Hill, Justin. “Air Board Sues Steel Firm Over Odorous Emissions.” The Contra Costa Times, August 16, 2006.

Holloway, Peter J. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Gazette, December, 1982.

Holloway, Peter. “Bad Air in Berkeley?” The Berkeley Council of Neighborhood Associations, March, 1982.

Huang, Philip. “Inaccuracy.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 3-6, 2007.

Hughes, Charles V. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Gazette, December, 1982.

Johnson, Jason B. “Steel Mill to Install $2 Million Filter.” The San Francisco Chronicle, December 29, 2005.

Jones, Carolyn. “Artist-Industrial Enclave in West Berkeley Feeling Growth Pressure.” The San Francisco Chronicle, August 19, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “Council Weighs Rumsfeld Lawsuit.” The San Francisco Chronicle, March 14, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “Critics Say Steel Plant Still Spewing Toxics.” The San Francisco Chronicle, August 29, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “Dozens protest steel foundry fumes”. The San Francisco Chronicle, February 22, 2009.

Jones, Carolyn. “It Won’t Be Easy Being Green.” The San Francisco Chronicle, May 24, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “New Stink Over Steel Foundry.” The San Francisco Chronicle, March 12, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “Pacific Steel Agrees to Fine, Pollution Controls.” The San Francisco Chronicle, May 2, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “Pacific Steel to Reduce Toxic Emissions.” The San Francisco Chronicle, February 2, 2007.

Jones, Carolyn. “Steel Foundry to Try Filtering Smelly Effluent.” The San Francisco Chronicle, October 2, 2006.

Jones, Will. “Court Requested to Order Foundry to Stop Nasty Odor.” The Oakland Tribune, March 12, 1985.

Kay, Michael. “Berkeley Steel Plant Can Stay Open While Awaiting Trial.” The Daily Californian, September 25, 2006.

Kay, Michael. “Residents Push for Further City Action on Foundry.” The Daily Californian, March 13, 2007.

Khan, Ayesha. “Pacific Steel to Undergo Employment Eligibility Audits.” The Daily Californian, June 17, 2011.

Kim, Esther. “Steel Foundry Workers Rally Amidst Fears of Layoffs.” The Daily Californian, February 8, 2008.

Knobel, Lance. “Hundreds rally in Berkeley to protest Pacific Steel layoffs.” http://www.berkeleyside.com/2012/02/17/hundreds-rally-and-march-to-protest-pacific-steel-layoffs/, February 17, 2012.

Knobel, Lance. “West Berkeley’s Pacific Steel files for bankruptcy.” http://www.berkeleyside.com/2014/03/13/west-berkeleys-pacific-steel-files-for-bankruptcy/, March 13, 2014.

Kopecky, Andrea. “Berkeley Steel Foundry to Stop Illegally Polluting the Bay.” San Francisco Bay Keeper, June 25, 2013. http://baykeeper.org/featured/berkeley-steel-foundry-stop-illegally-polluting-bay

Kroll, Chris, Janice Schroeder, and Davis Schroeder. “Zoning Board Ignored PSC Health Hazards.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, May 19-22, 2006.

Kroll,Chris, Schroeder, David, and Schroeder, Janice. “Pacific Steel and the Zoning Adjustments Board.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 28 – February 3, 2010.

Kussmis, Mary, Sgt. “Press Release: Labor Action on Second Street Between Page and Gilman.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 21, 2011.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Appeal Filed Against Pacific Steel Odor Reduction Permit.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 2-5, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Environmentalists Speak Out Against Pacific Steel.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 17-20, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Group Takes Pacific Steel to Court Over Emissions.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 11-13, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Newcomer Takes on Pacific Steel Casting Pollution.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 3-6, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Organizer Leads Suit Against Pacific Steel.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, May 16-18, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Pacific Steel Faces New Lawsuit From Environmental Group.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, May 19-22, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Suit Served Against Pacific Steel.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 21-24, 2006.

La Barre, Suzanne. “Watchdog Group Will Sue Pacific Steel.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 3-6, 2006.

Landon, David. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 30-July 3, 2006.

Lee, Bobby. “Whistleblowers file claim against Bay Area Air Quality Management District.” The Daily Californian, February 22, 2017. http://www.dailycal.org/2017/02/22/whistleblowers-file-claim-bay-area-air-quality-management-district/

Lerza, Catherine. “District 1.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, September 8-11, 2006.

Liftik, Maggie. “Maio, Broadbent Deny City Air Pollution”. [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 22-28, 2009.

Lopez, Alan. “Air Quality District Reaches Settlement With Pacific Steel.” The West County Times, December 29, 2005.

Lopez, Alan. “Pacific Steel Settles With Air District.” The Berkeley Voice, December 30, 2005.

Lynn, Jessica. “Bay Area Air Quality Management District accepting public comment on Pacific Steel Casting Company.” The Daily Californian, January 19, 2017.

MacClarin, Wanda. “Clean Air Group Objects to Odor from Foundry.” The Oakland Tribune, February 11, 1982.

Maio, Linda. “Berkeley Air Quality”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 8-14, 2009.

Manning, Stephanie. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Gazette, December, 1982.

Marasovic, Carole. “Job Losses”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 16-22, 2009.

Massara, Haley G. “Private Equity Firm buys West Berkeley-based Pacific Steel.” The Daily Californian, August 4, 2014.

Matthews, Karen. “Pacific Steel Must Clean Up Plant Odors.” The Berkeley Gazette, August 25, 1983.

Matthews, Karen. “Tentative Truce On Odors.” The Berkeley Gazette, August 27, 1983.

Mausner, Jasmine. “Steel Company Responds to Odor Complaints.” The Daily Californian, April 6, 2010.

McDonald, Courtney. “West Berkeley Health”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, October 29 – November 4, 2009.

McDonald, Mark. “Something Stinks in West Berkeley.” [commentary].The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 18-24, 2010.

McFarland, Kristin. “Berkeley Schools Top Bad Air Quality List”. The Berkeley Daily Planet, December 18-22, 2008.

McGrath, Mike. “Foundry Still Stinks, Residents Tell Council.” The Berkeley Gazette, November 26, 1982.

McGuire, Tom. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor] The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 9-11, 2005.

Michaels, Pear. “Backwards Sensitivity To Pacific Steel Neighbors”. [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, November 13-19, 2008.

Mitchell, Merrilie. “Pacific Steel Castings (PSC): Politicians Protecting Polluters.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, September 21, 2010.

Morrison, Blake and Heath, Brad and Jervis, Rick. “Young Students Often Most Vulnerable To Toxic Air”. USA Today, December 21, 2008.

Najmabadi, Shannon. “Supporters of Fired Undocumented Workers Hold ‘March for Dignity’.” The Daily Californian, February 2, 2012.

Nakashima, Ellen. “Factory Must Stop Odors, Board Tells Berkeley Plant.” [Unknown Publication], December 19, 1984.

Nakashima, Ellen. “Hearings Begin Over Foul West Berkeley Odor.” The Daily Californian, October 3, 1984.

Nakashima, Ellen. “West Berkeley Odor May Be Eliminated.” The Daily Californian, November 30, 1984.

O’Brien, Matt, Dreier, Hannah. “Former Employee Files $31 Million Lawsuit Against Pacific Steel in Berkeley.” The Mercury News, December 23, 2011.

O’Brien, Matt, Dreier, Hannah. “Former Employee Sues Firm.” Contra Costa Times, December 24, 2011.

O’Brien, Matt, Dreier, Hannah. “Pacific Steel Firing 200 After Federal Audit.” Oakland Tribune, December 16, 2011.

O’Toole, Kathy. “Berkeley Foundry Told to Stop Odor.” The Oakland Tribune, December 19, 1984.

Oakley, Doug. “Air Advocates Test Pacific Steel Site.” The East Bay Daily News, April 25, 2007.

Oakley, Doug. “Berkeley steel plant agrees to reduce odors”. The West County Times, February 16, 2008.

Oakley, Doug. “Berkeley Strike Employee Hurt.” Berkeley Voice, March 22, 2011.

Oakley, Doug. “Council on Green Crusade.” The East Bay Daily News, March 15, 2007.

Oakley, Doug. “Fired Workers Protest in Berkeley.” Contra Costa Times, February, 18, 2012.

Oakley, Doug. “Foundry could be declared public nuisance.” The East Bay Daily News, February 8, 2008.

Oakley, Doug. “Foundry to Reduce Emissions.” The East Bay Daily News, February 2, 2007.

Oakley, Doug. “Pacific Steel Feels the Heat.” The East Bay Daily News, October 13, 2006.

Oakley, Doug. “Pacific Steel Initiates Discussion with Neighbors.” The East Bay Daily News, January 23, 2007.

Oakley, Doug. “Pacific Steel Settles Air Lawsuit.” The Oakland Tribune, May 3, 2007.

Oakley, Doug. “Pacific Steel Settles Pollution Lawsuit.” The West County Times, May 4, 2007.

Oakley, Doug. “Pacific Steel strikes deal with city of Berkeley”. The San Jose Mercury News, February 14, 2008.

Oakley, Doug. “Pacific Steel to reduce odors”. The East Bay Daily News, February 15, 2008.

Oakley, Doug. “Steel Plant Case Causes a Stink.” The East Bay Daily News, September 21, 2006.

Oakley, Doug. “Steel Plant in Court Over Emissions.” The West County Times, September 22, 2006.

Oakley, Doug. “Steel Plant Readies for Odor Filter.” The East Bay Daily News, September 26, 2006.

Oakley, Doug. “Steel Plant Still Smells, Some Say.” The East Bay Daily News, November 4, 2006.

Oakley, Doug. “What’s that smell? Class action seeks answer”. The Contra Costa Times, April 30, 2008.

Orenstein, Peggy. “The Way We Live Now: The Toxic Paradox”. The New York Edition, February 8, 2009.

Ortellado, Damien. “Pacific Steel, Workers Reach Agreement.” The Daily Californian, March 28, 2011.

Ovadia, Tomer. “Healthy Air Coalition Sues for Disclosure of Emission Plan”. The Daily Californian, April 14, 2009.

Paul, Willi. “Fighting for Clean Air.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 24-26, 2006.

Paul, Willi. “Out With Maio.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 14-17, 2006.

Paul, Willi. “Pacific Steel Emissions.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 31- September 3, 2007.

Paul, Willi. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 7, 2006.

Paul, Willi. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, October 13-16, 2006.

Paul, Willi. “Really Being Green, Not Just Whistling Yourself Green.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 29-31, 2006.

Paul, Willi. “Seven Blocks, Green Mule.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 24-27, 2006. 10

Raguso, Emilie. “Pair arrested on suspicion of copper wire theft at Pacific Steel Casting.”  https://www.berkeleyside.com/2020/01/28/pair-arrested-on-suspicion-of-copper-wire-theft-at-berkeley-business?, January 28, 2020.

Riftik, Maggie. “Berkeley Needs to Protect its Air and Children”. [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 8-15, 2009.

Ross, Andrew. “Plant Has Fresh Plan to End Its Foul Fumes.” The San Francisco Examiner, November 28, 1984.

Scanlon, Mavis. “Berkeley’s Pacific Steel Casting Sued Over Clean Air Act Violations.” The East Bay Business Times, July 14, 2006.

Scanlon, Mavis. “Odors from Pacific Steel Casting Still Burning Noses – and Tempers.” The East Bay Business Times, January 19, 2007.

Scanlon, Mavis. “Pacific Steel Casting Sued Over Foul Odors.” The East Bay Business Times, July 21, 2006.

Scanlon, Mavis. “Pacific Steel Makes Move to Quell Smell.” The East Bay Business Times, February 23, 2007.

Scherr Judith. “Pacific Steel Casting Remains Under Scrutiny.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, September 21, 1999.

Scherr, Judith. “Air Quality Board Considers Pacific Steel Castings’ Case.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 5, 2000.

Scherr, Judith. “Audience Demands to Be Heard at PSC Meeting.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 9-12, 2007.

Scherr, Judith. “City Council Agrees to Limit Commissioner Terms.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 16-19, 2007.

Scherr, Judith. “City Council Considers Public Commons Services.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 12-14, 2008.

Scherr, Judith. “Community Meeting Addresses Steel Plant Issues.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 17-20, 2006.

Scherr, Judith. “Council Looks at Budget, Approves Garbage Hikes.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 23-26, 2006.

Scherr, Judith. “Emissions Debate Nears End.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, September 23, 1999.

Scherr, Judith. “Emissions, Commissions, Behavior, War on Council Agenda.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 13-15, 2007.

Scherr, Judith. “Foundry Continues to Concern Neighbors.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 17, 2000.

Scherr, Judith. “Maio Faces Mitchell in District 1 Race.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 25-28, 2006.

Scherr, Judith. “Mitchell and Maio Battle for Future of District 1.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, October 20-23, 2006.

Scherr, Judith. “Neighbors Raise Stink Over Odors.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 13, 1999.

Scherr, Judith. “Nexus Evictions, LPO Revisions, Fee Hikes on Council Agenda.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 20-22, 2006.

Scherr, Judith. “Odor Debate Lingers.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 13, 1999.

Scherr, Judith. “Odorous Order: Air Quality Board Places New Conditions On Foundry.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 10, 2000.

Scherr, Judith. “Pacific Steel Castings [title partially destroyed].” The Berkeley Daily Planet, November 3, 1999.

Scherr, Judith. “Pacific Steel Workers on Strike.” East Bay Express, March 22, 2011.

Scherr, Judith. “Ranked-Choice Voting Shakes Up Berkeley Council.” The East Bay Express, October 20, 2010.

Schimmel, Nancy. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 31, 2007.

Schroeder, David. “Eco Activists for more green jobs”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Voice, July 17, 2009.

Schroeder, David. “For Green Jobs”. [letter to the editor]. The West County Times, July 22, 2009.

Schroeder, David. “Pacific Steel Layoffs”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July16-22, 2009.

Schroeder, David. “Toxics.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 6-9, 2007.

Schroeder, David. “West Berkeley Odors Mandate Comprehensive Tests.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 16-18, 2005.

Schroeder, David. “Working Together”. [letter to the editor]. The Oakland Tribune, July 17, 2009.

Schroeder, Janice and David. “We Love the ZAB”. [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, September 17-23, 2009.

Schroeder, Janice. “Op-ed: Concerned about health risks posed by Berkeley’s Pacific Steel Casting? Deadline for voicing them is Jan. 19”.
[op-ed]. Berkeleyside, January 14, 2017.

Schroeder, Janice. “Air of Victory” [letter to the editor]. The East Bay Express, September 16, 1983.

Schroeder, Janice. “Berkeley Is Slow to Stop Steel Plant’s Air Pollution.” [letter to editor]. The Daily Californian, September 14, 2010.

Schroeder, Janice. “Do Not Pass Go” [letter to the editor]. The East Bay Express, July 8, 1983.

Schroeder, Janice. “Neighbors Say Stop Stink” [letter to the editor]. Grassroots, January 12-25, 1983.

Schroeder, Janice. “Oceanview Neighbors Win Big: Pacific Steel Ordered to Clean Up Their Act” [letter to the editor]. Grassroots, September 14-27, 1983.

Schroeder, Janice. “Pacific Steel Casting Company.” [commentary]. CNA [Council of Neighborhood Associations] Newsletter, Berkeley, CA, October, 2010.

Schroeder, Janice. “Pacific Steel Casting Pollution Problems Again Before Berkeley City Council.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, September 7, 2010.

Schroeder, Janice. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 14-16, 2006.

Schroeder, Janice. “Response to Steel Firm’s Suit” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Gazette, March 24, 1983.

Schroeder, Janice. “Save Berkeley Commissions.” [letter to the editor]. Berkeley Times, May 26, 2011.

Siegal, Meryl. “Greening Berkeley.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, May 25-28, 2007.

Simonet-Reid, Sarah. “Air Quality II” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, December 2-5, 2005.

Smith, Nick. “Lawsuit Alleges Labor Violation by Pacific Steel.” http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/local/east_bay&id=8478457, December 23, 2011.

Snapp, Martin. “Berkeley City Council Supports Rumsfeld Trial.” The Contra Costa Times, March 15, 2007.

Snapp, Martin. “Neighborhood Intensifies Feud with Company.” The Contra Costa Times, July 22, 2006.

Staley, Heather. “Casting Doubt: West Berkeley Residents Have Reasons to Be Cynical – and Worried.” Terrain, Summer 2005.

Stelmach, Patrick. “Pacific Steel’s Emissions Present Very Real Problem”. The Daily Californian, May 8, 2009.

Sterling, Abby and Ayers, Christin. “Shuttered Berkeley Steel Foundry’s Toxic Footprint Poses Risk for Workers”. https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2019/08/01/steel-foundry-shuttered-toxic-hazard-interstate-berkeley/, KPIX 5 CBS SF Bay, August 1, 2019.

Taylor, Tracey. “Peaceful Pacific Steel protest ends at west Berkeley plant.” http://www.berkeleyside.com/2012/02/17/pacific-steel-protest-peaceful-and-good-natured-ends-at-plant/, February 17, 2012.

Tepperman, Jean. “Clearing Out the File Cabinets, But Not Necessarily the Air.” https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/clearing-out-the-file-cabinets-but-not-necessarily-the-air/Content?oid=27301158, The East Bay Express, August 14, 2019.

Thompson, Chris. “West Berkeley Development Woes.” The East Bay Express, May 7, 1999.

Toczynski, Terry. “Factory Smell Annoys W. Berkeley Residents.” The Daily Californian, February 10, 1982.

Traynor, Patrick. “Spare the Air Day.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 23-26, 2006.

Traynor, Patrick. “Spare the Air.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 27-29, 2006.

Traynor, Patrick. “The Stench of Politics.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 24-27, 2006.

Traynor, Patrick. “West Berkeley Blight”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 8-15, 2009.

Traynor, Patrick. “West Berkeley.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 8-11, 2007.

Trice, Jr., Billy. “De La Fuente”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, July 30-August 5, 2009.

Ture, Martha E. “The Environment 1984.” The East Bay Express, December 21, 1984.

Ture, Martha E. “The Pollution Game” The East Bay Express, Volume 5, Number 35, June 24, 1983.

Turner, Arielle. “Protestors Call For Cleaner Air Near Schools”. The Daily Californian, February 23, 2009.

Vriend, Dorothy. “Group Keeps Pressure on Foundry.” The Berkeley Voice, November 11, 2005.

Wafer, Jonathan. “Ten Questions for Councilmember Linda Maio.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, April 24-26, 2007.

Ward, Nancy. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 22-24, 2006.

Weiru, Fang. “Steel Company Sued by Former Employee.” The Daily Californian, January 25, 2012.

Weltener, Grace Pegan. “Local Group Deals Clean Air Suit to Steel Maker.” The Daily Californian, July 27, 2006.

Whitley, Brian. “Locals March Against Steel Foundry’s Emissions.” The Daily Californian, November 13, 2006.

Wilkenson, Kelly. “Demonstration at Pacific Steel Briefly Turns Violent.”http://blogs.kqed.org/newsfix/2011/03/22/demonstration-at-pacific-steel-briefly- turns-ugly-violent/, March 22, 2011.

Wolfsy, Barry. “Wilma Chan To the Rescue”. The Berkeley Daily Planet, February 21, 2008.

Wood, LA. “A Cancer Risk in West Berkeley.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, January 29-31, 2008.

Wood, LA. “Air Quality Battle in Oceanview.” The Berkeley Voice, September 9, 1999.

Wood, LA. “Berkeley’s Insidious Incinerator.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, April 19-21, 2005.

Wood, LA. “Berkeley’s Odious Burnt Pot Handle Smell.” The Berkeley Daily Planet, March 28-31, 2005.

Wood, LA. “Berkeley’s Skate Park: Backslide on the Chrome-6”. [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, May 1-7, 2008. 11

Wood, LA. “Body Burden Study for Northwest Berkeley”. [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, October 29-November 4, 2009.

Wood, LA. “Corrections.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 31-September 3, 2007.

Wood, LA. “Enterprise Over Health”. [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, October 1-7, 2009.

Wood, LA. “Pacific Steel Casting: At What Cost?” [commentary].The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 20-22, 2006.

Wood, LA. “Pacific Steel Casting: ZAB ‘em!” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, May 9, 2006.

Wood, LA. “Shut Down Incinerator.” The Berkeley Voice, June 10, 1999.

Wood, LA. “West Berkeley Air Quality; Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.” [commentary]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, August 28-30, 2007.

Wood, Phil. “Pacific Steel.” [letter to the editor]. The Berkeley Daily Planet, June 27-29, 2006.

Alliance History v.1.12, July 2013